Mutual Funds Are Diversified Investments. The nature of mutual funds as pooled investments that are professionally managed means that investors generally can easily accomplish one of the most important standards of smart investing — diversification. To diversify means to spread market risk by holding a variety of several different securities, rather than just a few. Most mutual funds invest in dozens or hundreds of stocks or bonds within one portfolio. Depending upon the type of fund, this accomplishes the fundamentals of diversification with as little as one or two mutual funds. However, when building a portfolio of mutual funds, especially as investment assets and objectives grow more complex over time, investors are smart to diversify across several funds in different categories.
Perhaps the greatest benefits of buying mutual funds are that they are simple enough for beginning investors to buy and manage but they are also powerful and productive enough for even the most seasoned of investors. This guide will walk you through the purchase of your first fund to building a complete portfolio of mutual funds. Choosing the Place to Buy Mutual Funds. Although you can buy mutual funds through a discount broker, such as Charles Schwab or Scottrade, the best way to buy mutual funds is through a mutual fund company. But you don’t want to start with just any mutual fund company; you’ll want to do a bit of research to find a reputable firm that has a broad selection of low-cost, high-quality mutual funds.
Think of mutual funds as investment baskets of securities. Each basket has its own objective and manager (or management team). The manager also has a team of analysts that assist in doing the research. Also keep in mind that, when it comes to management, mutual funds fall into two primary categories — one is active management and the other is passive management. Managers of actively-managed funds will use their resources to try and ”beat the market,” which is to say that they’ll attempt to outperform a certain benchmark, such as the S&P 500 index. However, the manager of a passively-managed mutual fund will not try to beat the index but will instead buy and hold a basket of stocks that will replicate the holdings and performance of the index.
Other Types of Mutual Funds: Index Funds. Today, not all funds are managed by a financial manager. Index funds use a computer program to buy all of the stock in a particular index, such as the Russell 3000 or the S&P 500, regardless of how they’re performing. They don’t have to do research or try to time the movement in the market to buy or sell at the ”right” time. Index fund fees, therefore, are generally much lower than the fees for managed funds, and, therefore, the return on investment is higher.
Equity and fixed-income funds have subcategories which allow an investor to cast a narrow net with their investment dollars. For example, an equity fund investor might invest in a technology fund that only invests in eco-friendly technology companies. Likewise, a bond fund investor who is seeking current income might invest in a government securities fund that only invests in government securities. A so-called balanced fund is a mutual fund that owns both stocks and bonds.